The Antarctic is one of the cold sources of the Earth's atmosphere and a region that is sensitive to climate change. With global warming, Antarctica has become a key area for international programs to study global climate change. Most of the world's ice and snow is stored in the Antarctic, and more than 95% of Antarctica is covered by ice sheets with an average thickness of 2,000 meters, ice shelves and snow that is not covered all year round. It has an ice continent that can raise the global sea level by 66 meters.
The Arctic region is one of the regions most sensitive to climate change and has long received great attention from climate change research. Despite the recent signs of slowing or even stagnation in global warming, climate change in the Arctic has accelerated markedly over the past few decades: on the one hand, sea ice cover in the Arctic summer and autumn is accelerating melting ( As shown in Figure 1), the historical low value of the Arctic sea ice cover area is constantly refreshed. The sea ice cover area in September 2012 is only equivalent to 51% of the average sea ice area from 1979 to 2000, compared to the early 1980s. More than half of the sea ice has disappeared in the summer. The rate of sea ice reduction in 2002-2011 was twice as fast as it was between 1979 and 2006...
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, known as the 'three poles' on the earth, has been an important area for the study of global environmental change and has played a profound role in regulating the ecology, environment and climate of the entire planet. It has always been a hot spot of concern to the international community. Under the background of global warming, the elements of the cryosphere such as the three-pole glaciers, frozen soils, and frozen-melt lakes have undergone significant changes. The glaciers are rapidly retreating and the layers of frozen soils are thickened. For a long time, China has carried out systematic and multidisciplinary research on the third pole of the world, which is dominated by the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and has formed a rich research accumulation. Compared with the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China's current level of scientific research in the Arctic and Arctic regions is relatively low, especially the problems of weak research foundation, scattered research direction, and no system and low level. With the impact of climate warming...
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